Cytogenetic Analysis / Chromosome Analysis

→ list of Cytogenetic Tests offered by IMMD

One core method is cytogenetic analysis, which is offered by IMMD for prenatal, postnatal, and tumor diagnosis using the most advanced techniques such as FISH and M-FISH.
Each cell in our body, except for red blood cells, has a nucleus. The chromosomes are contained in this nucleus. Since the chromosomes contain an individual's entire genetic code, every cell contains all the genetic information of an individual. Chromosomes are classified by their size and appearance under the microscope, and normal individuals typically have twenty-two chromosome pairs and a pair of sex chromosomes. The non-sex or autosomal chromosome pairs are numbered 1 through 22, and there are two sex chromosomes, designated X and Y. Individuals with two X chromosomes are female, and individuals with an X and a Y chromosome are male.
When a cell divides, each of the 46 chromosomes is duplicated, and each of the two new cells contains an exact duplicate of the genetic information in the original cell. When a sperm fertilizes an egg, the fertilized egg should have 23 chromosomes from each parent, making a total of 46 chromosomes.
Sometimes, portions of one chromosome are exchanged with another chromosome. This may result in a conception in which there is too much or too little genetic material, causing the fetus to develop abnormally. Often when this happens, a miscarriage occurs, and the fetus does not appear to have developed at all.
In another case, an individual may have too much or too little chromosome material. This can lead to birth defects, growth problems, mental retardation, or any combination of these. Down syndrome, for instance, is usually caused by an additional, extra chromosome 21.
Chromosomal rearrangements are also common in tumor cells or in leukemia, and chromosome analysis of tumor cells or blood can help making the correct diagnosis and deciding on the appropriate treatment.

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